Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers

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The investigators, and even the statisticians, did not know the group allocations until all the data had been collected. Thus, the study was randomized, triple-blind, controlled and prospective in design. Furthermore, the women who had been prayed for showed a higher implantation rate than those who had not been prayed for Finally, the benefits of prayer were independent of clinical or laboratory providers and clinical variables. Thus, this study showed that distant prayer facilitates implantation and pregnancy.

Lesniak[ 33 ] described a study on the effect of intercessory prayer on wound healing in a nonhuman primate species. The sample comprised 22 bush babies Otolemur garnettii with wounds resulting from chronic self-injurious behavior. These animals were randomized into prayer and control groups that were similar at baseline. Prayer was conducted for 4 weeks. Both groups of bush babies additionally received L-tryptophan. Lesniak[ 33 ] found that the prayer group animals had a greater reduction in wound size and a greater improvement in hematological parameters than the control animals.

This study is important because it was conducted in a nonhuman species; therefore, the likelihood of a placebo effect was removed. Aviles et al. In this study, coronary care unit patients at discharge were randomized to intercessory prayer or no prayer conditions. Prayer was conducted by five persons per patient at least once a week for 26 weeks.

Patients were considered to belong to a high-risk group if they were 70 years old or older or if they had any of the following: diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease. The primary endpoint of the study was any of the following: death, cardiac arrest, rehospitalization for cardiovascular disease, coronary revascularization or an emergency department visit for cardiovascular disease. By the end of 26 weeks, a primary endpoint had occurred in The difference was not statistically significant.

The results remained nonsignificant when data were analyzed separately for high- and low-risk patients. Thus, this study showed that, as delivered in this study, intercessory prayer did not influence the week outcome after discharge from a coronary care unit. Other recent randomized controlled trials have also reported negative results. For example, Krucoff et al.

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Benson et al. The sample comprised 1, patients in six hospitals in the USA. These patients were randomized into three groups: were prayed for after being informed that they may or may not be prayed for, were not prayed for after similarly being informed that they may or may not be prayed for and were prayed for after being informed they would definitely be prayed for.

Prayer commenced one day before the surgery and continued for 14 days. Three mainstream religious sites prayed daily for patients assigned to receive prayer. Assessment of outcomes was made by nurses who were blind to the group assignments. The primary outcome was the presence of any complication within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes were any major event, including death.

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The study sought to examine the efficacy of intercessory prayer and not to test the presence of God. The design was described by Dusek et al. Major events and day mortality rates, however, were similar across the three groups. This study therefore showed that remote intercessory prayer did not improve outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

In fact, the knowledge of being prayed for was associated with a slightly but significantly higher rate of postsurgical complications. Leibovici[ 39 ] reported the results of an unusual study that was conducted in Israel. The sample comprised 3, in patients diagnosed with a bloodstream infection between and Bloodstream infection was defined as a positive blood culture in the presence of sepsis. A list of the first names of the patients in the prayer group was given to a person details not specified who said a short prayer details again not specified for the wellbeing and full recovery of the group as a whole.

This prayer was said about years or longer after the index admission. There was no sham intervention. Thus, this study sought to determine whether prayer has a retrospective healing effect. The patients in the prayer and control groups were similar on important sociodemographic and clinical variables. Whereas the mortality rate did not differ significantly between the prayer and the control groups Some points about this study are worth noting. The differences between groups, although significantly favoring patients for whom prayer was offered, were very small; the medians of the two groups differed by a small margin.

Thus, the significance of the findings depended heavily upon the outliers who skewed the sample. Next, no attempt was made to compare for unusual biases, such as day of admission and discharge. It is conceivable, for example, that patients admitted toward the end of the week may have been investigated and treated more slowly and those due for discharge toward the end of the week may have been retained until the start of the next week. Importantly, considering the number of patients in each group, there must surely have been much overlap in first names.

Did Leibovici consider the possibility that the prayers, then, could benefit patients in both groups to the extent of overlap? Finally, in a lighter vein, would the findings have changed had the author, in the best spirits of ethical research, offered the experimental intervention prayer for the control group at the conclusion of the study? More seriously, because the data were retrospective, it should have been possible for the study to have been repeated several times, with fresh randomization each time.

Would the results, then, have remained unchanged?

Why do we struggle with how to prayer?

These and other issues were raised in the journal correspondence published on the Leibovici[ 39 ] article. In the broadest sense, prayer describes thoughts, words or deeds that address or petition a divine entity or force. Chibnall et al. We expand on certain of their views and of the views expressed in the journal correspondence that followed their article, and we add our critical perspectives in the discussion that follows.

Some technical notes that do not flow with the text are provided in the Appendix.

By invoking prayer, researchers invite troublesome questions about the importance of several theosophical matters:. Do the quantitative aspects of prayer influence outcomes? Quantity refers to the number of prayers, the frequency of the prayers and the duration of the prayers. Do the qualitative aspects of prayer influence outcomes? Quality refers to the category to which the prayer belongs in the religion of the person who is praying; the fervency with which the petition is expressed; whether the prayer is expressed in thoughts, speech or song; the addition of vows and sacrifices, etc.

Does the practical content of the prayer or the actual petition matter? That is, are some petitions more or less likely to receive a favorable response, depending on how reasonable they are? Are outcomes more likely to be favorable if the persons praying have greater belief that the outcome will be favorable, or greater faith or conviction in the deity at whom the prayer is directed? Are outcomes more likely to be favorable if a larger number of people pray or if a team approach is adopted as opposed to an individual approach?

Might outcomes depend on the personal characteristics of the persons who pray; that is, their age, sex, income, religious denomination, position in the religious hierarchy, experience with and skills at praying and so on?

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Might outcomes depend on the moral and social characteristics of the persons who pray; that is, their integrity, kindness, altruism, willingness to forgive, generosity, religiosity and so on? Might outcomes depend on the personal, moral and social characteristics of the persons in whose favor the prayer is offered, or of the general worthiness of the cause?

What is the nature and magnitude of response that would be considered as a favorable outcome? Therefore, all of the above would need to be considered as independent or confounding variables in any scientific study on the efficacy of intercessory prayer. Curiously, no study has so far addressed these issues. And, for several reasons, such issues are disturbing because they reduce the concept of God to that of a human being with weaknesses and vanities, thereby exposing theological inconsistencies and attacking the very roots of theology and natural justice. We present some of the unsettling questions that arise in these contexts; the questions are unsettling because they invite comparison with human parallels that devalue the concept of God, something that those who pray surely would not have considered.

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If the number, duration and frequency of prayer are important or if the number of persons praying is important, does God, like a businessman, market boons based on the currency value of the prayers? Or, will God pay attention only if those who pray are sufficiently bothersome? If the type of prayer is important, is God a bureaucrat who is more likely to consider petitions that appear in the prescribed forms? If the addition of vows and sacrifices is important, is God somebody who can be flattered or bribed into granting a boon?

If the practical content of and petitions in the prayer are important, how does God make decisions about what is and what is not a reasonable request? If the faith or conviction of the persons who pray is important, does God value the beliefs of the petitioners more than the merits of the petitions?

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If the personal characteristics and qualities of the persons who pray or the persons who are being prayed for are important, are some people more equal before God than other people? Religions portray God as being compassionate; what sort of compassion is displayed by the selective favoring of an experimental over a control group?

If the entity to which the prayer is directed is important, do different Gods have different portfolios? Are some Gods more approachable? Do some Gods ignore some prayers? If the religious affiliation of the person who prays is important, what becomes of the other religions of the world and those who follow such religions; will their prayers remain unanswered?

If the magnitude of response to the petitions is total, then all prayers should result in miraculous or near-miraculous benefits. This, clearly, almost never happens. Thus, does God work on percentages; that is, if the petition is for an elephant, does he sanction a mouse? Or, are his responses only subtle ones? If so, how does he choose on the outcome measure to improve?

Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers
Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers
Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers
Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers
Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers Effectiveness Of Everyday Prayers

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